Works discussed in Rizvi's (1987) Appendix

I just bought S.A.A. Rizvi's The Wonder That was India, Part II, that is written much later with intent to continue Basham's story to cover the subcontinent from 1200-1700. The work itself is less well-written than Basham's, and its discussion of Literature is subordinated to an appendix titled Medieval Indian Literature and the Bhakti movement. Possibility of why it is in the appendix is that the content is not necessarily Islamic, the primary coverage in the main text. Here I document the authors / works cited in the chapter (early works and philosophers discussed as background, most covered by Basham's are omitted).



Tirukkural ("Sacred Couplets") - Tamil, attributed to Tiruvalluvar, perhaps 4th or 5th century A.D.

Tirumurai ("Eleven Sacred Books") - Tamil Shaivites, anthologies of 63 Nayanars, chief of these:

> Tevaram - contains songs of three poets Appar, Nanasambandar, Sundaramurti

> Tiruvasagam - by Manikka Vasagar  

Nalayiram ("Four Thousand") - Tamil Vaishnavites, collection of stanzars attributed to the 12 Alvars; greatest of the Alvars was Nammalvar (c. AD800); Antal - a female Alvar


Bhagavata Purana - translated many times from Sanskrit to Indian regional languages (some 40 in Bengali alone); most important is the 10th book that describes life and achievement of Krishna



Jnanesvara's (1271-96; also known as Jnanadeva) Bhavarthdipika or Jnanesvari - Marathi's commentary to Bhagavad Gita

Namdev (1270-1350) - author of Vaishnavite hymns; shows influence of Sufi ideas; leader of a circle

Eknath (?1533-99) - mystic, made kirtan (group singing) in Marathi a highest form of worship; published reliable edition of Jnanesvari and worte commentary on the Ramayana named Bhavartha-Ramayana

Tukaram (1598-1650) - greatest bhakti poet in Marathi language

Ramdas (1608-81) - Marathi poet and saint



Jayadeva's  (c. 1199) Gita-Govind ("Songs of the Cowherd) in Sanskrit - reshaping of Bhagavata Purana, possibly influenced by apabrahmsa

Chandidas (c.1350-1430)

[Chaitanya (1485-1533) and reviver Govind Das (17th c.) - listed in Bengali movement]


Indo-Aryan dialects:

Vidyapati's love ballads - in Maithili, 14th - 15th c, legacy from Chandidas

Ramananda's (c. 1360-1470) Adhyatma-Ramayana in Sanskrit

Raidas - deciple of Ramananda

Kabir - one of Ramananda's deciples; (?1425-1505); most reliable collections include Adi Granth, Kabir Granthawali, Bijak ("Treasury")

Muhaqqiq-i Hindi - imitator of Kabir's style

Guru Nanak (1469 - 1539) - born in southwest of Lahore, founder of Sikh religion; verses Babur-Vani invaluable as historical document 

Lihna, Nanak's successor, known as Guru Angad (1539-52?)

Amar Das, 3rd Guru (1552-74) - hymns of first 3 Gurus compiled

Arjan Deva (1581-1606), 5th Guru, compilation called Adi Granth (also known as Guru Granth Sahid), became Scripture

Dadu (1544-1603) - also founder of a panth, hymns and poems named Bani (inspired utterances or oracles") compiled by disciples; influenced by Kabir 

Garib Das - son of Dadu

Mirabai, Surdas, Tulsidas - greatest poets of the bhakti movementin Hindi

Mirabai's (c.1498-1546) Padavali - series of poems

Vallabhacharya (1479-1530) - Telugu-speaking region, reinvigorated Krishna bhakti, wrote in Sanskrit

Vitthalnath (1515-1588?) - Vallabha's son; his circle wrote in Braj Bhasha dialect, within his circle most venerated poets are:

Nanddas's (?1533-85) padas (poems for singing)

Sudras' (c.1478-1583) Sur Sagar ("Sur's Ocean")- blind poet

Tulsidas' (1532-1623) Ram-charit-manas ("The Lake of the Story of Rama"), the Ramayana in Hindi; his other works include Vinaya-patrika, Kavitavali


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