Readings Q1-'17

一 - 二、"The First Romantics," "C-Minor Moods." [I]The Oxford History of Western Music: Music in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries[/I], Richard Taruskin: 2010. 是书的第12-13章 (最后两章),讲贝多芬,他1770年底出生,1790年写第一篇重要作品,1792师从海顿,1795年前已经成名,演奏过他自己的钢琴协奏曲,并出版了Op.1,1800年已经明确的成为其时代最厉害的作曲家。1801年确认自己开始失去听力;提到了其创作有几年(大概1812-1817)是明显的低潮期。

早期作品 (1800或以前):
Op.1 (3 Piano Sonatas) - 重点分析了#3 in C minor
Op. 2 (3 Piano Sonatas)
Op. 13 Piano sonata in C minor "Pathetique" 有分析
Op.19 Piano Concerto #2 in B flat major
Op. 20 Septet for Winds and Strings
Op. 21 1st Symphony

Op. 18 Six String Quartets (1801)
Op. 53 Piano Sonata "Waldstein"
Op. 55 Symphony #3 "Eroica" (1804) - 重点分析
Opera: Leonore / Fidelio
"Coriolan" Overture in C minor (1807) - 重点分析
Bagatelles "For Eliza" (1808)
Op. 57 Piano Sonata "Appassionata"
Op. 59 Three String Quartets "Razumovsky" (~1806)
Op. 67 5th Symphony in C minor - "the most famous symphony in the world" - 重点分析
Op. 73 Piano Concerto #5 "Emperor" (1809)
Op. 97 Piano Trio "Archduke" (1810-11)
Eighth Symphony (1812)

Wellington's Victory ("Battle Symphony") (1813)
Op. 102 2 cello sonatas - #2 in D 有分析
2 Piano Sonatas - includes Op.101 in A major 有分析
Song cycle "To the far-off beloved"
Cantata "Der glorreiche Augenblick" ("The glorious moment") 1815 - 有分析
Fugue for string quartet (posthumous op.137)

Op. 106 in B flat "Hammerlkavier" (1817-18) 有分析
Op. 109-111 Three Piano Sonatas; Op. 111 #32 in C minor (1822)有重点分析
Bagatelles Op. 119, 126 (1820-1824)
Op. 120 Diabelli Variations (1822)
Op. 123 Missa Solemnis in D (1819-23)
Op. 124 "Consecration of the House" Overture (1822)
Op. 125 9th Symphony (1824) - 重点分析
Quartets Op.127, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135 - Op. 130 #13 in B flat, Op. 132 #15 in A minor 有分析 (1825-1827)


三、"Real Worlds, and Better Ones." The Oxford History of Western Music: Music in the Nineteenth Century, Richard Taruskin: 2010. 是书的第1章。讲19世纪头三分之一的歌剧。Beethoven的失败与Rossini的成功对比。让我对Rossini很感兴趣。分析了的作品:

Beethoven: Fidelio (1806-1814)

Rosini (1792-1868):
Tancredi (1813)
L'Italiana in Algeri (1813)
Il barbiere di Siviglia (1816)

Bellini (1801-1835):
Norma (1831)

Donizetti (1797-1949):
Lucia di Lammermoor (1835)

四-五、"The Music Trance: Romantic Characterstucke; Schubert's Career." "Volkstumlichkeit: The Romantic Lied; Mendelssohn's Career; The Two Nationalisms". The Oxford History of Western Music: Music in the Nineteenth Century, Richard Taruskin: 2010. 是书的第2-3章。舒伯特对和声运用的创新和孟德尔松的保守,前者为主;也提到其他人物如肖邦。键盘小品作品和小歌曲的先锋又都是CPE Bach。Felix Mendelssohn的姐姐Fanny的作品,比Felix可能更有天分。

- Dussek, The Sufferings of the Queen of France #9
- Tomasek, Eclogue, Op. 35#1
- Tomasek, Dithyramb, Op. 65 #2
- John Field, Nocturne #4 in A major

Schubert (1797-1828):
- (early Lied) Gretchen am spinnrade (composed 1814 published 1821) 有分析
- (early Lied) Erlkonig (composed 1815, pub. 1821) 有分析
- (early Lied) Heidenroslein (composed 1815) 有分析
- Piano Quintet in A major "The Trout" (1819)
- Mass in A flat major (1822)
- Unfinished Symphony in B minor (1822) 有分析
- Lachen und Weinen D.777 (1823) 有分析
- Piano Fantasy "Wanderer" Op. 15 (1823)
- Sony cycle Die shone Mullein (1823) 有分析
- Quartet in D minor "Death and the Maiden" (1824)
- Octet in F major (1824) 有分析
- Die Allmacht (1825) 有分析
-  Moment musical -- #6 in A flat major 有分析
- Song cycle Die Winterreise 有分析
- Quartet in G major D. 887 (1826) 有分析
- 8 Impromptus (1827)- Op.90 #2, Op. 142 #2 有分析
(All the following are composed in his last year, 1828)
- C-major Symphony 有分析
- 2 Piano Trios D. 898 / D. 929
- Quintet in C major D. 956
- Last 3 Piano Sonatas D. 958-960; D960有分析
- F-minor Fantasie for piano duet
- Mass in E flat major 有分析
- Set of 14 songs: Schwanengesang 有分析

Mendelssohn (1809-1847):
- Octet in E flat major, op. 20 (1825)
- Overture to Midsummer Night's Dream Op. 21 (1826) 有分析
- Rondo capriccioso, Op. 14 (1827) 有分析
- Die Hebriden "Fingal's Cave" (1830)
- Paulus (oratorio) (first performance 1832) 有分析
- Symphony #4 in A major "Italian" (1833)
- Symphony #3 in A minor "Scottish" (1842)
- Midsummer Night's Dream (additions, including wedding march, 1842)
- Violin concerto Op. 64 (1844)
- Elijah (oratorio) (first performed 1846)
- Songs without Words


六、"Self and Other: Chopin and Gottschalk as Exotics; Orientalism" The Oxford History of Western Music: Music in the Nineteenth Century, Richard Taruskin: 2010.是书的第7章。(跳过了歌剧、Paganini/List, Schumann/Berlioz)的三章。肖邦在巴黎上层社会转,同期流落他乡的波兰文豪Mickiewicz (1798-1876)的地位就差一些!他的音乐与巴黎Salon的密切关系。美国的Gottschalk则名气少多了,但他的命运也是很传奇的,尤其是他在南美在演出当中的崩溃趋势。

Chopin (1810-1849 ):
- Variations for Piano and Orchestra on "La ci dare la mano" Op. 2 (1827)
- Krakowiak (Piano concerto Rondo) (1829)
- Piano Concertos in E minor & F minor
- Fantasia on Polish Airs with Orchestra
- Grande polonaise for piano and Orchestra E flat major (以上作品同期,写于从维也纳回波兰之后), 1831或以前。
- (61) Mazurkas: Op. 6 (1832) #1有分析; (4) Op. 17 (1834) - #2, #3, #4有分析 , F minor Op. 68#4 (1849)
- (27) Etudes: Op. 10 (1833); Op. 25
- (21) Nocturnes
- (26) Preludes: Op. 28 (1839) - 有分析 #1, #2, #4
- (20) Waltzes
- (16) Polonaises
- (4) Ballades: #1 Op. 23 in G minor (pub 1836)有分析
- (4) Rondos
- (4) Scherzos
- (4) Impromptus
- (3) Sonatas: Op. 35 in B flat minor (1840) 有分析; Op. 58 in B minor (1845)
- Fantasie (1841)
- Berceuse (1844)
- Barcarolle (1846)
- Cello Sonata (one of his last compositions)

七、"The Return of the Symphony: Brahms" The Oxford History of Western Music: Music in the Nineteenth Century, Richard Taruskin: 2010.是书的第13章。跳过的章节大概就是Wagner吧!除了Verdi可能会有兴趣以外我应该不会回头读了。Brahms的“纯音乐”如何与"New German School"对立,但又如何与Wagner有很多共同点。音乐成为博物馆展品后(约于1850)作曲家的困难与Brahms的利用J.S.Bach的古乐突破贝多芬的“封锁”。Brahms与德国的民族主义。

Brahms (1833-1897):
- 3 early piano sonatas: #3 Op.5 in F minor (1853)
- Op. 8 piano trio (1854)
- Serenades: #1 Op. 11 in D major (1858)
- Piano Concerto in D, Op. 15 (1861)
- Rinaldo (Cantata) (1863)
- A German requiem "greatest choral work" (1868)
- Hungarian Dances for piano duet (1869)
- Liebeslieder for piano duet (1869)
- Triumphlied (1871)
- Schicksalslied (1871)
- Variations for Orchestra on a Theme by Joseph Haydn (1873)
- Symphonies: #1 in C minor (1876) (1st movement completed except slow intro 1862); #4 in E minor (1885)
- (2) Overtures: "Academic Festival" "Tragic" (both 1880)
- (3) string quartets: Op. 51 #1 in C minor (1873)
- (5) piano trios (1 cello->horn; 1 violin->clarinet)
- (3) piano quartets
- (1) piano quintet
- (2) string quintets
- (2) string sextets
- (1) quintet for clarinet and strings
- (3) sonatas for violin and piano
- (2) sonatas for cello and piano
- Clarinet sonatas Op. 120 (1894)


Dvorak (1841-1904): "arguably the most versatile composer of his time"
- Moravian duets for mixed voices and piano
- Slavonic Dances for piano four hands
- (1) Operas: Alfred (before 1871); Dmitrij (1882); Rusalka (1900)
- (14) String quartets (1862- 1895)
- (5) piano trios
- (2) piano quintets
- (1) piano quartets
- (2) string quintets
- (1) string sextet, and many more chamber music
- Symphonic Variations (1877)
- (3) Slavonic Rhapsodies for orchestra (1878)
- Overtures: My Home (1882), Carnival (1891), Othello (1892)
- Symphonies - #8 (1889), #9 Op. 95 (1893)
- Cello Concerto - Op. 104 (1895)
- (last orchestral works - cycle of symphonic poems) (1896-97)

Chaikovsky (1840-1893): (likes Mozart, dislikes Brahms and Wagner)
- Overture-Fantasia: Romeo and Juliet (1869, revised 1870, 1880)
- Eugene Onegin (working at the same time as Symphony #4)
- Symphonies: #4 (1877?); #6 in B minor "Pathetique" (Op.74) (1893)


八、Daniel Heartz. p.307-323,341-420 of "4. Haydn: The 1780s", 《Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven, 1781-1802》, 2009. 海顿真正重要的传世作品,大多是他1791年六十岁左右到伦敦以后。1780年代海顿也还没真正的住在维也纳;这十年中,重要作品以莫扎特的为多。此章提到的作品非常的多,因此也非常的长:

- Keyboard Sonatas: Hob. XVI:34 in E minor (for harpsichord), Hob. XVI:43 in A flat (authenticity challenged); Bossier Sonatas (for pianoforte): Hob. XVI:40 in G, in B flat, in D; Hob XVI:48 ("suggest a possible link with Clementi's keyboard style"); Hob XVI: 49 "Genzinger" in E flat

- Piano trios: Hob. XV:5 (disputed with Pleyel), Hob XV: 6-8 (in F, D and B flat); next 3 (in A Hob. XV:9 "well worth study", F, E flat); Hob XV: 11-13 (in E flat, E minor, c minor/major); Hob XV: 14 (in A flat, "With this very fine trio, one can discern Haydn's increasing interest in the genre as a vehicle for some of the deeper content"); Hob XVI: 15-17 (first 2 requires violin->flute, in G and D, the 3rd in F)  

-String Quartets: Op.33 (G "the most stunning", E flat "The Joke", B minor, C, D, B flat), Op. 42 in D minor, Op. 50 (x6), Op.54/55 (Op.54 #2 in C "the greatest of Haydn's new quartets ... reflects to a remarkable degree the profound impression left upon him by Mozart's String Quintets in C and g"), Op. 64 (C, B minor, B flat, G, E flat, D "The Lark"; last 2 are "the greatest gems" of Op. 64)

-Concertos: Piano concertos (Hob. XVIII:11 in D, XVIII:4 in G); 5 lire concertos  

-Seven Last Words "It takes the original full-orchestra version to do justice to this music and much else in the work."

-Symphonies: #75-81 (#75 in D "has special claims to attention"), #82-87 "Paris" (#85 "La Reine" "by far the most popular of the set", "#82 in C "L'Ours =(The Bear)" "perhaps second in popularity only to "La Reine" with audiences in Paris."), #88-92 (#88 in G "later became one of Haydn's most loved works but at the time was not as popular a favorite as "La Reine")


九、"Artist, Politician, Farmer (Class of 1813, II): Verdi" The Oxford History of Western Music: Music in the Nineteenth Century, Richard Taruskin: 2010.是书的第11章。我对歌剧是没有什么兴趣,但关于古典音乐中最重要的歌剧作家的这一章,我还是读了。重点是他与Wagner的奇怪关系(Verdi更有名,但一直心中有Wagner的阴影;Wagner则对Verdi毫不在意),Verdi与意大利的统一时代的意识形态的关系,还有Verdi的莎士比亚情结。

Verdi (1813-1901): total 28 operas, 19 from between when he was 23-40:
Oberto (1836, 1st opera)
Nabucco (1842, has the song "Va, pensiero, sull'ali do-rate" 有分析)
I Lombardi alla prima crociata (1843) 有分析
Ernani (1844) 有分析
Macbeth (1847)
Rigoletto (1851) 重点分析第三幕,这剧跟King Lear最有关系,主角同时是受伤的父亲和宫廷小丑
Il trovatore 有分析
La traviata (1853) 有分析 Waltz tunes
Les vepres sciliennes (1855)
La forza del destino (1862)
Requiem mass (1870s) - not opera
Simon Boccanegra (1857, revised 1879-81)
Don Carlos (1867, revised 1882-1883)
Otello 重点分析
Falstaff (1893)

选读了《Oxford History of Western Music》关于17-19世纪的两册的这些章节,总结一下主题:

2。古典音乐的成立,贡献很大的是意大利的小提琴手(Corelli, Vivaldi, Paganini)和歌剧。
4。J.S. Bach和Handel是在19世界上半,被Mendelssohn复兴的。
5。CPE Bach在交响乐、Keyboard,和Lieder各方面都是维也纳时代(从海顿到舒伯特)的先驱。


十-十四、John Gingerich. "Introduction," "Preparations," "The year of crisis, 1823," "Schuppanzigh and Schubert's chamber music," "The E-flat Piano Trio, Schubert's career, and its two last movements." Schubert's Beethoven Project, 2014:1-84, 271-301. 我此书也没有打算全读。此书研究的是Schubert1824年开始,在贝多芬著名的genre当中,写了不少4乐章的作品,作者把此14部作品,叫做Schubert's Beethoven Project,其中包括Octet D.803, 三首String Quartets D.804, D.810, D.887, 六首Piano Sonatas D.845, D.850, D.894, D.958-960,第“九”交响乐D.944, 两首Piano Trios D.898, D.929, 和String Quintet D.956.但作者也不是对此14首作品都作深入的分析。甚至他也不是认为Schubert在进军这些被认为是“高级”音乐(相对于当时Schubert已经成名的“低级”的Lieder genre)的领域的方法很成功:如觉得D.810 "Death and the Maiden" String Quartet直接使用他自己之前的歌曲主题并无助于听众对Schubert的定位;如D.944在后来也没有被认同为Schubert最成功的作品;如其被Schubert自己修改并缩短了的D.929并没有原来的版本在艺术上成功等等。在此14首作品中,我读后觉得精中之精是Piano Sonata D.959和String Quintet D.956


十五、Daniel Heartz. p.421-427,435-544 of "5. Haydn in London: The 1791-1795", 《Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven, 1781-1802》, 2009. 海顿在伦敦的三年多。中间曾经有计划第二次到伦敦的时候带上贝多芬,但最后没实现。但海顿的一些交响乐作品有一些开始听上去有一点贝多芬的感觉,应该是海顿的创新后来被贝多芬研究消化。有一批最成熟的作品要到海顿过了六十岁以后才出现。提到的作品群多但简单:

London Symphonies: No.93-104,这也自然的按照海顿的两次出访伦敦(他中间回过维也纳一次)分为每组六首,后来的六首作者着墨更多。在伦敦当时,因为欧洲的战乱的关系,No.100 ("Military")最受欢迎,海顿自己也许觉得No.104最有价值,值得以之“封笔”,他后来回维也纳没有再写交响乐。(作者唯一不喜欢的是No.95,但我听起来觉得不错)。以后听这12首的时候可以按调性分开来听。
Symphonie Concertante in B flat (for violin, cello, oboe, bassoon)
"The Storm" - cantata for four voices, chorus and orchestra - 对此作者没有下笔墨,应该是等下一章再回过来谈
String Quartets Op.71/Op.74: 此六首是一组,只是分开出版
Piano Trios: Hob.XV:18-29这12首分四组出版,以#25"Gypsy"最受欢迎(我也觉得是最精彩的)。后面顺便提及No.30-32
Piano Sonatas:Hob.XVI 50-52;No.52最重要;后来海顿没有再写piano sonatas
12 German Dances and 12 Minuets: Hob. IX:11-12

另我跳过没读的是关于歌剧Orfeo ed Euridice的几页。


十六-十八、Aaron P. Johnson. "I. Contexts, Life and Works," "IV. Writing Past and Peoplehood," "VI. Speaking, Truth and Power." Eusebius, 2014: 1-24, 85-112, 143-170. 最近改变了读书策略,就是不再要求自己全书读完。此书也是一本没打算全读的书。Eusebius在文化典籍方面,重要的是他的《教会史》而非其神学、我顺带也读了关于其《Life of Constantine》的第六章(书的最后一章)。Eusebius的作品都是他年纪比较大以后才写的,他生于260年代,最早能系年的《Chronicon》成于306或之后,《教会史》成于324年(此是Johnson的观点,不能算是定案,但他在此小书中用了8页多去谈这个问题!),Council of Nicaea (325)Eusebius有参加,《Life of Constantine》写成于Constantine 337年去世之后,Eusebius自己没于339。我对Eusebius不能说太有好感,但羡慕的是这位大书虫坐拥巨大的图书资源!其对历史的贡献起码有三:1)让各地方历史传统的系年联系起来(他不是第一个做这个的,但他的结果影响很大;做这个需要掌握的资料多);2)用统一教会的角度去写世界史;3)在历史中广泛引用文献(这也需要资料多)。p.96介绍了《教会史》Eusebius在前言中的5个主题(the hsitory of ecclesiastial leaders; the rise of heretics; the defeat of the Jews; the persecution of Christians; martyrdom),是我以前不知道的。



十九、Daniel Heartz. p.553-674 of "6. Haydn: Late Harvest", 《Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven, 1781-1802》, 2009.  海顿在1795年后还有突破,但到1802年左右停笔,最后的Op.103 Quartet只写了两个乐章;他于1809年5月辞世。关于海顿生平,我非常尊敬的是他的不断进取、进步和对后进的提携和帮助。我这一阵不断在听他的London Symphonies, 隐约觉得终于对交响乐稍为“开窍”。

Oratorios: The Last Seven Words (加上Vocal部分); The Creation; The Seasons

关于 The Seasons, 作者引用了别人的话:"amazing series of pieces that concludes Autumn ... alone could ensure Haydn's premiere place with Titian, Michelangelo, and Turner, Mann and Goethe, Verdi and Stravinsky, as one of the rare artists to whom old age brings the gift of ever bolder invention." 并加脚注:"... This is perhaps the place to admit that the Hunting and Drinking Choruses first led me to study Haydn's music more extensively beginning some forty years ago, and that no music has elated me more in old age than The Seasons."
还有原来海顿还想写一个关于Last Judgment的Oratorio.

Masses: Heiligmesse, Missa in Tempore Belli, Nelson Mass; Theresienmesse, Creation Mass, Harmoniemesse,
Te Deum Laudamus

"We easily forget how experienced and by all accounts superb a music director Haydn was. These skills, acquired over a lifetime's experience as a Kapellmeister, were not the lot of every composer and were not given, for example, to Beethoven."

String Quartets: Op.76, Op.77 1-2; Op.103 (2 movements)

作者对Op.76#3 最后两乐章不太感兴趣;关于Op.76#4 "There is so much to admire throughout every movement of the quartet, it wins our palm for being the most beguiling among its five fellows."

Trumpet Concerto: "The concerto, dated 1796 on the autograph ... was published in 1931. After this ... the work ... became the composer's most popular concerto. ... Just as the Concertante is best appreciated if not heard too often, so the same can be said of the Trumpet Concerto."


- Piano Trio #25 "Gypsy"
- String Quartet Op.76#3 "Emperor"
- Symphony #102

- Piano Sonata #52, #48也不错
- 大家对海顿的协奏曲都不认为很好,我觉得Cello Concerto #1, Piano Concerto #11, Sinfonia Concertante, Trumpet Concerto都听有可听性
- String Quartet 我还想多听的有Op.33#5 in G, Op.76#2 "Fifths", Op.76#4 "Sunrise", Op.77#1
- Symphony 我没挑104因为听上不是很优美,有点像贝多芬。99评价不错,但是初次听不是算是最悦耳的。100”Military”当时受欢迎,但铜管那段听上去以为是后来Mendelssohn结婚进行曲的Variation。 101 "Clock" 的慢乐章我对"Clock"这个Bass没太大感觉。103"Drum Roll"我觉得与104一样在优美性方面稍逊于102。在1791-1792的最初6首London Symphonies,93/94的第二乐章都有逗乐的成分(因此很难用“最好”来形容),95/97被critic 的评价稍弱,96“Miracle" 没觉得初次听太吸引(有点像99那样),98我没有怎么听,与102一样都是B flat的。

他的Seven Last Words (orchestral version)我还没有听过;其6首Masses;Creation / Seasons Oratorios, 我有空会找Video来看。


1。《德沃扎克传》,奥塔卡。希渥莱克著,朱少坤翻译,1954年翻译,1980年第二版。年轻时候买的书,当时国内标价一块二,我从香港天地图书以港币八块买的,过了这么多年,昨天翻了出来,一口气读完这本只有136页的小书。世代这么久,观点有点古老,如明显的觉得Smetana比Dvorak重要,和超级着重Dvorak的“捷克民族性”和其出生劳动阶层并终其一辈子与劳动人民大众的友好关系。读了此书之后,了解到Dvorak的创作重点在1887-1897, 尤其是1893-1895在美国和刚回捷克的3年; Op.81之后的基本都大多是其佳作),(1880年代初也有佳作,并在此10年变得国际知名,如多次访问英国),以下我记下的有趣/重要作品年代以此书说到的写作(而非首演或出版)年份为準。

Op. 25/58 "圣母哀悼曲" (1876-77)
Op.34 String quartet in d minor (1877)
Op. 69 "鬼的新娘" (1884, “神剧”)
Op. 71 "圣罗德密拉" (1885-86, “神剧”)
Op.74 String trio in C major (1887) - 两个小提琴与一个中提琴合奏的曲子

Op. 81 Piano Quintet in A major (1887) (听后感:动听!)
Op. 84 "Jacobin" (1887-1888, Opera)
Op. 85 “诗之音画” (1889, for piano solo)
Op. 86 Mass in D major (1887) - 作者认为此曲水平不够之前的“圣母哀悼曲”或之后的“安魂曲”高
Op. 87 Piano Quartet in E flat major (1889) (听后感:一般,不听非损失)
Op. 88 Symphony in G major (1889) (听后感:优美,但结构比较松散)
Op. 89 Requiem (1890)
Op. 90 Piano Trio "Dumky" (1890) (听后感:一般,不听非损失)
Op. 91-93 Set of 3 symphonic overtures "在大自然里” "Carnival" "Othello"(1890-1891)
Op. 95 Symphony in e minor "From the New World" (1893)  (听后感:优美)
Op. 96 String quartet in F major (1893) - 作者成书时还没有”American"的“小名”?(听后感:不错,民乐感觉太过)
Op. 97 String quintet in E flat major (1893) - 此也是后来的American (听后感:比Op.97强)
Op. 99 "圣经歌曲集" (1894)
Op. 101 Humoresque (1894, for piano solo)
Op. 102 "美国旗" (1892-1893)- “它使人觉得这种异域的事物。。。不能。。。深刻地启发德沃扎克的灵感。”
Op. 104 Cello concerto in b minor (1894-95)
Op. 105 String quartet in A flat major (1895)
Op. 106 String quartet in G major (1895) - “此两首可能是德沃扎克室内乐曲中最佳的作品” (听后感:一般,不听非损失)
Op. 107-110 4 symphonie poems (1896)
Op. 111 “英雄之歌” (1897, Symphonic Poem)

Op. 114 "水仙女" (1900)
Op. 115 "阿尔密达"(1902-1903, 最后作品)


2.《Beethoven: The Music and the Life》,Lewis Lockwood著,2005年出版。不过不失的一本书。开始的时候节奏还比较紧凑,讲到贝多芬晚年就越来越多音乐分析,没有足够的其它内容把叙述撑起来。分期还说传统(也许是现代的共识)的三期。我对贝多芬一直都有些抵触:很多被捧到天上去的乐曲其实并不悦耳。

第一期 1892-1802:
Piano Sonatas (total 11 between 1798-1802, important ones): Op.13 "Pathetique", Op.27 #2 "Moonlight" (1801 latest), Op. 31 #1-3 (1802 latest, #2 is "Tempest" -- "... these moments bring a poetic quality to the piano sonata beyond all past imaginings, by Beethoven or anyone else)
String Quartets: Op. 18 #1-6 (1801 latest) - 没有特别重视哪一首
Violin Sonatas: Op.24 #5 "Spring" (1800), Op.47 #9 "Kreutzer" (1802, published 1805, 把奏鸣曲写的像协奏曲,真是进步吗?)

第二期 1802-1812:
Symphonies: 我觉得#3-#8也许应该算成一组,与海顿第二次去伦敦的#99-#104,莫扎特的后六首(#35,#36,#38, #39-41)对比。#3一直都被说为很重要(我怎样听也没有觉得好听),#5 “命运”(1808)的名气则比较实至名归。
Concertos: 他的钢琴协奏曲#4/#5的第一乐章和Choral Fantasy我都觉得过长,整体来说没有超过莫扎特的成就;Violin Concerto的殊胜是演奏者而非听众能体验的;Triple Concerto只能说是有趣。
Piano Sonatas: Op.53 "Waldstein" (1804?), Op.54, Op.57"Appassionata" (1805)
Cello Sonata Op.69 (1808)
Piano Trios: Op.70#1-2 (1808), Op.97 "Archduke" (1811)
String Quartets: Op.59 #1-3 "Razumovsky" (1806, maybe early 1807), "these three quartets formed a continental divide in the history of the quartet comparable to the Eroica and the "Waldstein" -这就更让我不感兴趣!,"The first ... is the longest and most massive ... No.2 ... difficult for listeners to grasp at first hearing ... No.3 ... easiest to grasp" "No.3 ... at first seemed 'disjoined' to some commentators"), Op. 74 "Harp" (1809), Op. 95 "Serioso" (1810)

第三期 1813-1827:
Piano Sonatas: Op. 106 "Hammmerklavier" (1818), Op. 109-111 (1820-22);Op.110也许可听性最高
Bagatelles: Op.119 (1823, #7-11 published 1821 before, #1-6 are older works from 1791-1802, 此11首我一直认为非常的美) , Op.126 (1824, as a cycle)
Diabelli Variations (1823)
Missa Solemnis: "more respected than loved"
Ninth Symphony
String Quartets: Op.127, Op.130,Op.132是一组三首,原来Op.130的Finale后来另外作为Op.133"Gross Fugue"出版,Op.131(1826, [vs. Gross Fugue]"as if the profound catharsis of the former had released the serene lyricism of the latter."), Op.135 (贝多芬没有迹象要写一套六首,Op.135之后有意思的是他想写的是String Quintet)



1。贝多芬曾师从海顿,但又觉得没从海顿处学到什么。(肯定没有学到海顿如何待人处事。)贝多芬的Op.1和Op.2,是Piano Trio和Piano Sonata,都是海顿的作品系列中带钢琴的长项(海顿六个长项为Piano Sonata 如#52, Piano Trio 如#25, String Quartet 如 Op.76#3, Symphony 如伦敦的12首, Oratorio 如Creation, Seasons, Mass 如Nelson Mass - 贝多芬开始有Opus的时候海顿的还没有写最著名的Oratorio和Mass。而关于贝多芬的掌故中,就有海顿提醒贝多芬Op.1#3 c minor不适宜出版,而贝多芬对此非常不满。可以说贝多芬的创作有专门针对海顿的成分,在genre上贝多芬最强的三项(Piano Sonata, String Quartet, Symphony)就是海顿强项的其中的三种。这也造成后来海顿被忽视的尴尬情况。

2。贝多芬的Piano Trio写了很多,当然也有佳作。但在后代的名声不如其他三类Genres。海顿的piano trio大多是写给家庭娱乐之用,也在后代没有受重视。这也带出了一点,就是贝多芬在作曲家的意识形态与海顿的区别:海顿是为了市场而写出很多当时大家喜爱的作品;贝多芬则写了很多当时(甚至后来)只是被"respected but not loved"的作品。

3。贝多芬的Mass有Missa Solemnis,但不能算突出。他没有写成Oratorio;所以后来海顿被听的最多就是他的The Creation (1798)。

4。贝多芬也有意识的与莫扎特竞争;从刚开始正式搬到维也纳他就被捧为另一个莫扎特。莫扎特的强项与海顿重合的只有String Quartet和Symphony,而此两者也都只是莫扎特的“副业”-他的"Haydn" String Quartets回应的是海顿的Op.33; 最后3首Symphonies奇特的是莫扎特在没有演出目的而写成的。莫扎特写过一些Mass,K.427我没有搞清楚他为什么没有完成,但从前门部分明确能听的到他的天赋!莫扎特最成功的是歌剧、协奏曲,弦乐五重奏;另外在小提琴奏鸣曲也下过功夫。

5。贝多芬也下决心写歌剧,唯一写成的是Fidelio,当时评价只能说失败(对比于Rossini!)。贝多芬在小提琴奏鸣曲方面算是超过了莫扎特,Op.24 #5 "Spring"的优美和Op. 47 "Kreutzer"的大气在后来演奏厅中应该比莫扎特的更流行,连像K.377这样的“神品”(个人认为)也没有什么名声。

6。我个人觉得贝多芬在协奏曲方面也许接近、但没有真正超过莫扎特。贝多芬的钢琴协奏曲,#3是针对Mozarts' #24 in the same c minor key,连Brahms都觉得Mozart贡献更大,Piano concertos #4/#5/Choral Fantasy都有其可听性,但#4/#5第一乐章都过长,第二乐章的慢版没有Mozart的最佳作品来得优美。贝多芬小提琴协奏曲在当时没有受到好评,后来也针的只有在顶级大师如Heifetz在最佳状态下才能真正的impress听众。Mozart有Sinfonia Concertante for Violin and Viiola (K.364), 贝多芬则来一个Triple Concerto for Piano, Violin and Cello。贝多芬有针对性的写协奏曲来与Mozart争雄,应该没有错吧!

7。在这个角度看,贝多芬写完Op.135后,在生命将完结前着手写的是String Quintet in C major(same key as Mozart's K.515 string quintet and Beethoven's own op.29),则也许贝多芬想在String Quintet追越Mozart的目标很明确吧!



上网搜索了一下,原来发现贝多芬与杜甫的类似,以前已经有人说过;并推广到贝多芬与杜甫VS莫扎特与李白。。。我要比较的话,只能把此扩充到Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Schubert和李杜王孟上去!

从《唐诗三百首》选诗分析诗人在后代心目中的排序 ... 0&fromuid=86273



二十 - 二十九,Michael Steinberg. "Bach," "Beethoven," "Brahms," "Dvorak," "Handel," "Haydn," "Mendelssohn," "Mozart," Verdi.", Choral Masterworks: A Listener's Guide, 2005. 此人正好就是上面十九项提到Daniel Heartz引用的那人,出处就是这本书。读的这九章,大概是全书的百分之40。这些Listerning Guide, 是作品被“正统化”的一个渠道,内容其实没有什么意思,一点作曲家和作品介绍和简单分析。读到的九个作曲家介绍了的作品如下:

1. Bach: St. John's Passion
2. Bach: St. Matthew's Passion
3. Bach: Magnificat
4. Bach: Mass in B minor
5. Beethoven: Missa Solemnis
6. Brahms: A German Requiem
7. Brahms: Schicksalslied
8. Brahms: Nanie
9. Brahms: Gesang der Parzen
10. Dvorak: Stabat Mater
11. Handel: Messiah (附:Mozart 的改编版 Der messias)
12. Haydn: Harmoniemesse
13. Haydn: Die Schöpfung
14. Haydn: Die Jahreszeiten
15. Mendelssohn: Elias (Elijah)
16. Mozart: Vesperae solennes de confessore (before 1781)
17. Mozart: Kyrie eleison K.341
18. Mozart: Ave, verum corpus, K.618
19. Mozart: Mass in C minor
20. Mozart: Requiem
21. Verdi: Requiem

个人觉得听音乐应该有一定的娱乐性,不太赞同最好的音乐只能是严肃悲哀和庄严伟大。在上面的这21/22部作品当中,大部分都属此类。Bach, Brahms是极端;Handel讲的是耶稣的故事,当然也有悲伤哀愁的部分;安魂曲更不用说。连莫扎特的K.427,其开头震撼力也在其悲哀庄严。只有Haydn有意思,他的弥撒曲,相对来说是最轻松的,因为写的目的是为了在一位贵族女性的“Name Day”表演(有点像贺寿)(Steinberg觉得其6首晚起弥撒曲最好的是Nelson Mass和Harmonie Mass.);其神剧讲的则是《创世》和《季节》,有其悲伤的地方,但总的来说还是最正面欢快的。


三十、"Virtuosos: Paganini and Liszt" The Oxford History of Western Music: Music in the Nineteenth Century, Richard Taruskin: 2010.是书的第5章。之前读的只有Paganini的部分,昨天把关于Liszt的钢琴作品的后半章也读了。

Paganini (1782-1840):
- La carmagnole (1795)
- 24 Caprices (1805, published 1820): #24最有名,也分析了#13,#17
- Le streghe ("The witches", 1813)
- Dal tuo stellato soglio (1819)
- I palpiti (1819) - 有分析
- 5 Violin Concertos: 1st (1817), 2nd (1826)
- Travelled outside of Italy in 1828 - 1834 (Schubert, Schumann, Spohr, Berlioz, Liszt heard him)
- (Berlioz 的带viola obbligato的《Harold in Italy》是为他写的)
- God Save the King (London)
- St. Patrick's Day (London)

- Diabelli Variation
- Grande fantaisie de bravoure sur La Clochette de Paganini (1832)
- Etudes d'execution transcendante d'après Paganini (1838, revisions 1851)
- Reminiscences de Don Juan (1841)
- Piano Concerto #1 (1849); 这一段回溯了Mozart, Beethoven, Mendelssohn等的Concerto作品;1840年代标志性的Mendelssohn Violin Concerto (1844)和Liszt's Piano Concerto #1,都是没有了Improvised Cadenze的部分;作者认为此与音乐院(Conservatories)的普及有关。

此章提到关于Sonata Form的音乐理论,成立于巴黎音乐院的Anton Reicha 1824-26的三册书。正好昨天晚上继续翻Daniel Heart关于贝多芬在Bonn的情况,发现Anton Reicha与贝多芬同年,同时在Bonn的乐队任职(贝多芬在那是拉中提琴的)。


三十一、"Midcentury: The New German School; Liszt's Symphonic Poems; Harmonic Explorations" The Oxford History of Western Music: Music in the Nineteenth Century, Richard Taruskin: 2010.是书的第8章。黑格尔的辩证进步观如何影响音乐艺术观的分歧。1848年Liszt到Weimar做指挥,50年代写了一些当时都不受欢迎的作品(当然他也有他的粉丝)。书中分析了的作品:

Piano Sonata in B minor (1854)
Les preludes (1856, Symphonic Poem #3)
Faust-Symphonie (1857)
Annees de pelerinage, last number Sursum cords ("Lift up your hearts", 1867)


三十二、Phillips, Stephen H. “Introduction.” Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Vol XX: Visistadvaita Vedanta, 2017:27-51。这套大书也许这几年就出版完毕之前买过几本;这一册是关于Ramanuja一系的哲学家的作品简介。Introduction写的有点草率,英文Edit的不能说仔细-有很多语句都像大学生作文似的,就是能明白,但不流畅,也不完全清晰和符合语法规则。这个导论甚至对书中包括的135位作家做出一些宏观的介绍,如分期,派系等等,只是提了一下我都知道的Yamuna, Ramanuja(1017-1137)和后来的Vedanta Desika (1268-1369)。文章最后的关于此学派观点的27条派系共识,确是简单明了,是很好的参考。关于此派,最近30-40年研究的作品非常少


三十三、"Deeds of Music Made Visible (Class of 1813, I): Wagner" The Oxford History of Western Music: Music in the Nineteenth Century, Richard Taruskin: 2010. 书的第10章。读来又长又痛苦的一章。


三十四、Michelle Fillion. "Intimate expression for a widening public: the keyboard sonatas and trios."
三十五、James Dack. "Sacred music."
三十六、James Webster. "The sublime and the pastoral in the Creation and the Seasons."
The Cambridge Companion to Haydn, 2005: Chapters 9-11.

钢琴作品是室内乐,主要为女性演奏者而写。"The last E flat Sonata (Hob. XVI:52) ... has dominated the concert stage and the critical literature, eclipsing all Haydn's other London piano music except the trio in G major (Hob. XV:25) with its famous Gypsy rondo." 伦敦的钢琴创作与伦敦生产的优质钢琴有关。
海顿早年创作非常多的宗教音乐。1782年的Missa Cellensis可算作海顿晚期7篇弥撒曲的第一首。作者为最后的"Harmoniemess"(1802)写了稍详细的介绍。
为何后世更重视The Creation?"... it was not an inevitable fate of reception that would soon marginalize The Seasons in comparison to The Creation... negative critics ... emphasized two points in particular: the subject was perceived as "lower" than the exalted one of The Creation; and the text was judged aesthetically dubious, and its many pictorialisms indefensible."
"Both works reflected and revalorized the enlightened-conservative sensibility of the Viennese elite at the turn of the nineteenth century."


三十七、肖复兴。“门德尔松和肖邦”,《音乐欣赏十五讲(第二版)》,2012:89-106. 此第六讲。此人听音乐的喜好与我类似,门德尔松重视其“优美”,作品推荐《仲夏夜之梦》《意大利交响曲》《小提琴协奏曲》。肖邦重视其“纯朴”,作品则推荐其全部《夜曲》,一部分《圆舞曲》和两首《协奏曲》。用中文写的音乐评论比较好看,因为能用中文里面的诗去描述不怎么好描述的音乐。如谈到肖邦的夜曲:“如果说那真是一种境界,便是‘行到水穷处,坐看云起时’;如果说那真是一幅画,便是‘明月松间照,清泉石上流’。”


三十八-四十、肖复兴。“巴赫和亨德尔”,“莫扎特和贝多芬”,“罗西尼和比才”,《音乐欣赏十五讲(第二版)》,2012:16-49, 125-140. 分别是第二、第三和第八讲。作者应该非音乐专业出身,因此愿意大刀阔斧的下笔,如“巴赫的器乐、 亨德尔的声乐”。虽未必精确,这样写来是比较有意思。巴赫:管风琴曲、古钢琴曲、无伴奏大提琴曲、Brandenberg concertos, Orchestral Suites, 3 oboe concertos. 亨德尔: Messiah, Samson.


四十一、肖复兴。“韦伯与舒伯特”,《音乐欣赏十五讲(第二版)》,2012:55-66. 书的第四讲。韦伯(1786-1826):除了《自由射手》外,推荐了《邀舞》、《音乐会曲》。舒伯特则重视其艺术歌曲的两个cycles。